Usually when you think of sensory defensiveness we do not think of anxiety as a part of “sensory issues”. However many times when children have difficulties with sensory modulation disorders, they will also have anxiety due to either over responding to sensory input.
When sensory integration is working…
A child can attend to tasks
Change routines without stress
Can tolerate touch, sounds and can listen
Tolerate transitions in activities
Tolerate most textures with feeding and touch
Tolerates most visual input as well as auditory
Can play, and vary types and intensities of sensory experiences .
Have the ability to conceptualize, organize, and execute non-habitual motor tasks (praxis)
Children with sensory modulation disorder may demonstrate behaviors appearing “over-responsive” or have a low threshold (takes little sensory input to set them off. Winnie Donn, Ph.D.,OTR, FAOTA). “ These children can be fearful of movements, defensive to touch, certain textures, have feeding problems or be sensitive to sounds. They appear to have anxiety, and can often have behavioral outcomes.
When a child is “under-responsive” or has a high threshold, it takes a lot of sensory input to achieve the ‘just right’ threshold. These are the children that seek out sensory input, such as running, crashing, jumping, or have lack of attending. They have a decreased awareness of tactile or auditory input (such as calling their name). These children can also have difficulties with emotional/behavioral regulation. Some children can fluctuate between the two extremes. Dunn, Winnie, 1999, The Psychological Corporation.
As a therapist working with toddlers or older children, learning strategies to deal with the sensory issues as well as the anxiety is paramount. Sometimes the anxiety can manifest into sensory issues.
With toddlers there can be a wide array of sensory issues that can set them off. I usually have parents start out by filling out the “Sensory Profile” , then as a therapist I want to know their likes and dislikes and will have the parents give a list of both. Again working closely with parents so they may be successful at home, daycare, church or any environment that was challenging for the child.
I start out with a plan of heavy work activities that is suited for the child. Heavy work is any type of activity that pushes or pulls against the body. Heavy work activities can help kids with sensory processing issues feel centered. Heavy work engages a sense called proprioception, or body awareness. I also encourage parents to start working on this at home.
For Older children:
Again we get them involved with heavy work as this is generally calming to most children in a high or escalated state.
We also work on self -awareness of the level of anxiety using charts (see below). On this particular chart the levels are 1-5 with 1 being happy and 5 being “I feel Anxious!” or “I feel like hurting myself.” We recognize some anxiety is healthy, however when it interferes with daily activities such as school work, relationships, performance in daily tasks at home it is no longer healthy. I have children look at the chart 5 times throughout the day and read their levels, if they are getting to a level 3, 4, they need to address the anxiety before it gets out of control by performing heavy work activities, or favorite activities to calm them down.